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The changing colors of the foliage in fall are due to chemical processes in the leaves. During the whole summer the green leaves are green because of the content of chlorophyll.
Besides the chlorophyll the leaves have two other kinds of colorful color pigments: the caratenoids and the anthocyanins. The caratenoids are yellow, orange or brown. The anthocyanins are red.
See the instructional video
Autumn Magic: How Leaves Reveal Their Fall Colors" (You need Flash
player installed) from Maine's Official Fall Foliage Website.
Maine is the most heavily forested state in USA and 40 differenct species of native trees combine to give the most spectacular sightings of autumn colors. The fall foliage is the target of lost of turistic tours and tour operators.